Solutions to Orthopedic and Musculoskeletal Conditions

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 Dr. Calvo has many orthopedic accolades under his belt including fellowships in Sports Medicine: Arthroscopic and Reconstructive Knee Surgery and Reconstructive Surgery of Degenerative Joints.  He has been applying his expertise for over 28 years and has a special interest in sports injuries and artificial joints for the upper and lower extremities.  Being a triathlete himself, Dr. Calvo knows the importance of preventive therapies in addition to integrative approaches for bone, muscle, and tendon repair. 

Join us on this deep dive into athletic performance and wellness!

Kent Holtorf, M.D.

Hello, we’re back. We had a little technical difficulty so we’re kind of gonna go ahead without the PowerPoint. So we were talking about basically the different ways that you practice and how you got into this and how you got into exosomes. 


R. David Calvo, M.D.

Yeah, so let’s motor through the different—our purpose is peptides, but let’s talk about the basic cellular components. So, exosomes basically are expressions of the cell wall with intracellular components which include nucleic acids and proteins and various other incendiary things from within the soup of the intracellular milieuand. Those things are passed on to either the surrounding extracellular fluids or in fact merged with and entered into the surrounding cells and what we refer to as paracrine. The autocrine means what happens in the cell, paracrine, which means what happens near the cell. Endocrine happens distant from the cell, like from the hypothalamus down to the testicle, the hypothalamus is in the brain. So we can actually—I have three different ways that these things help. They help themselves, they help the neighboring cells, and they help distance cells and systems. So exosomes are an expression of a cell and they can be—and they’re almost always an expression of the STEM cell from which they are mothered. The industry has been able to replicate and grow up cultures of mesenchymal STEM cells or medicinal signal cells, if you will, depending on whose terminology you use. 

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